Thursday, June 6, 2013
Nowadays most people live in towns or cities.
In some town centres, people live in high-rise flats.
Outside towns, people live in houses.
There are many historic monuments in towns.
Tourists love to visit them.
Everyone travels by fast means of transport.
Some people work on farms.
Most people work in services.
Wednesday, June 5, 2013
Noblemen lived in big castles made of stone.
Their job was to go to war to fight the enemy.
They rode on horses.
The common people lived in small villages.
For protection, they built their villages next to the castles.
They walked, travelled by cart or boat.
People had different jobs: millers (made flour), blacksmiths (made things out of iron), farmers (grew crops).
Thousand of years ago people lived in huts made of branches and animal skins.
They walked everywhere.
They did not travel very far.
They had very feew possessions.
Primitive people picked wild plants to eat.
They hunted wild animals in the forest.
They caught fish in the river.
They cooked food over an open fire.
Monday, June 3, 2013
Historical monuments are very old buildings.
Historical monuments can be:
- Buildings: churches, castles or palaces.
- Other constructions: bridges or city walls.
|Madrid's Cathedral (Catedral de Santa María de la Almudena)|
|Manzanares El Real Castle|
|Toledo's Brigde in Madrid|
|Avila's City Wall|
All over the world, people celebrate local festivals in their cities, villages and towns.
Many countries celebrate New Year's Eve on 31st December.
Some countries celebrate Carnival in the spring.
Some festivals celebrate important events that happened in the past (a battle), or religious events (Easter or Diwali).
Some festivals celebrate the life of the patron saint of the city, village or town.
Most cities, towns and villages have their own customs, which make them different from other places.
These are called traditions.
- Typical customes.
- Traditional dances, songs and music.
- Traditional food and crafts.
Sometimes, part of the story was invented by the storyteller.
|Typical customes Madrid|
|Traditional food Madrid|
Tuesday, May 28, 2013
The history of your city is the story of the people who lived there before you.
Historians look for historical records to find out what people and places were like in the past.
Historical records can be:
- Written: books.
- Pictorial: paintings.
- Physical: objects, buildings.
The most important moments of your life make up your personal history.
To find out about your personal history:
- Look at old photographs or videos.
- Find toys or books you had when you were young.
- Listen to stories your family tells you.
|I was born...|
|My first step was...|
|My first word was...|
|My favourite toy was...|
|My birthdate is...|
Everyone has a family history.
Your history is a part of your life.
You can find out about your family history from old photographs and old objects.
NOW AND THEN:
Landscapes, objects and activities change with time.
Many years ago, the things around us were different.
Tuesday, May 21, 2013
Cultural services are responsible for municipal libraries and museums and town festivals.
Recreational services are responsible for taking care of municipal sports centres and swimming pools.
Town planning services regulate the construction industry, so that buildings are safe and carefully designed.
Highway services are responsible for maintaining and repairing road signs and traffic signals so we can drive safely.
Monday, May 20, 2013
Sanitation services keep cities clean:
- Water: This service makes sure we have clean, fresh water and clean sewers.
- Cleaning: Rubbish collectors and street cleaners.
- Street lighting.
- Parks conservation: Gardeners.
|NY sewer. Picture from Edward F Palm.|
|London street lightning.|
|London city gardeners.|
The local police are responsible for:
- Protecting people.
- Keeping the streets safe.
- Arresting criminals.
- Preventing and putting out fires.
- Helping people when there are disasters, such as floods or fires.
|Madrid local police.|
Food hygiene inspection services check that the food we buy is safe to eat.
Inspectors visit the local food shops.
Food safety regulations affect everyone who works in the food business.
Food hygiene inspectors make sure that:
- Shops, restaurants and markets are clean.
- Food handlers have good personal hygiene.
|Food hygiene rules.|
|Food hygiene inspection.|
|Food hygiene inspection.|
Friday, May 17, 2013
Every four years citizens elect local councillors.
The candidates present an election manifesto to explain what they will do if they are elected.
After the elections, the new local councillors elect one of their members to be the mayor.
You must be 18 years old to vote in local elections.