Tuesday, April 30, 2013
Tourism services provide services for tourists to relax or to have fun: travel agencies, hotels, restaurants...
Cultural services organise activities related to music, literature and art: museums, cinemas, theatres...
Recreational and sports services organise activities related to hobbies and sports: theme parks, sports centres...
Monday, April 29, 2013
Transport services move passengers and merchandise from one place to another:
Buses, taxis, undergrounds and ferries.
Communications services are provided by television, radio, newspapers and the Internet:
Some are public and others are private.
Educational services provide education at schools and universities.
These are public services.
There are also private schools and universities.
Health services are public services when the government pays for everyone to receive health care.
Some clinics and hospitals are private.
The people who work in services do not make objects or products.
They help people by providing a service.
Services can be:
- Public services: are provided by the government (public transport, firefighting, police services...).
- Private services: are provided by individuals or private companies (banks, hotels...).
MEANS OF TRANSPORT
Means of transport carry people and merchandise from one place to another by land, sea or air.
Transport can be public or private.
BUYING AND SELLING
People buy and sell many things: food, clothes, insurance, holidays, etc.
There are many types of shops: flower shops, baker's, butcher's, chemist's, supermarkets, hypermarkets, etc.
Thursday, April 25, 2013
Factories can change the natural landscape around them.
- Smoke and waste from factories can contaminate the land, air and water.
- Roads and railways are built to transport factory products to markets.
- Factories are often grouped together on industrial estates outside cities.
|Smoke from factories contaminates the air.|
|Waste from factories can contaminate water and land.|
There are three types of industry:
Primary industries: transform raw materials into other materials. These are used by other industries (the steel industry transforms iron into steel).
Consumer industries: make products to sell directly (the car industry transforms steel into cars).
Technological industries use very modern machines to make new products (the computer industry uses electronic components to make computers).
Raw materials are natural resources (wood, cotton...).
Raw materials are transformed into manufactured products in factories.
This is called the industrial process.
Many people work in factories where they specialise in one job.
They design or make parts of different products.
Factory workers often work on assembly lines.
Each worker makes only one part of a product, then passes it on to another worker.
Monday, April 22, 2013
Forestry means obtaining wood and looking after natural resources from forests.
- Lumberjacks cut down trees.
- Then, they transport the timber to mills to be cut up.
- Finally, they plant new trees to replace the ones they cut down.
Lumberjack cuts a tree:
Transporting the timber:
Cutting up the timber:
Mining means extracting stones and minerals, such as coal, from under the ground.
Miners dig into the soil to reach these natural resources.
There are two types of mining:
Open mining. When minerals are near the surface of the earth, miners dig quarries. These are large, open holes on the land.
Fishermen catch fish and shellfish in rivers and seas.
There are two types of sea fishing:
- Coastal fishing. Fishermen fish near the coast. They go out to sea in small fishing boats and use nets.
- Deep-sea fishing. Fishermen fish a long way from the coast. They go out to sea in big boats with modern machines. Deep-sea fishing boats have refrigerators that keep the fish fresh.
Fish farms are places where farmers breed fish and shellfish.
Fish farms are built near rivers or on the coast.
Stockbreeding is animal farming.
Farm animals are called livestock.
They include cattle (cows, bulls), sheep, pigs and poultry (chickens, turkeys).
Farmers breed them for thier meat, milk, eggs and skins.
There are two types of stockbreeding:
- Intensive farming. The animals live in pens and barns. Farmers give them hay or dry feed to eat.
- Free range farming. The animals live in the open and eat grass or grain.
Tuesday, April 16, 2013
Farmers use tractors and combined harvesters to save time and energy.
These machines are used to add fertiliser to the soil and to harvest the crops.
Farmers grow crops in greenhouses.
Greenhouses help control the amount of water, temperature and light.
Dry farming is a method of growing crops in dry areas.
Dry crops do not need a lot of water to grow: grapevines, olive trees, wheat, barley and oats.
Irrigation means watering plants with water from rivers or lakes.
The water is distributed through irrigation channels or sprinklers: vegetables, fruit, rice and corn.
Farmers do many jobs to cultivate the land:
- they plough the fields to turn the soil,
- they water the soil and fertilise it to add nutrients,
- they sow the seeds,
- they spray the plants with pesticides to stop insects harming the crops,
- they harvest the crops when they are ripe.
Crop farmers grow plants for food.
These food crops include:
- Food for people: vegetables, pulses, cereals and fruit.
- Food for animals: alfalfa.
Crop farmers also grow plants to be transformed into other products in factories: industrial crops:
There are many different types of jobs.
Some people work on farms, some work in offices.
Other people work in shops or factories.
Do you remember the jobs we studied last year?
Firefighter: She/He puts out fires.
Cook (chef): She/He cooks food.
Dentist: She/He looks after our teeth.
Plumber: She/He repairs pipes.
Farmer: She/He looks after animals and plants.
Hairdresser: She/He cuts or combs our hair.
Mechanic: She/He repairs cars.
Doctor: She/He looks after our health.
Nurse: She/He takes care of us (patients).
Waitress/Waiter: She/He serves us drinks and food.
Policewoman/Policeman: She/He protects us.
Shop assistant: She/He sells us things.
Street cleaner: She/He cleans the streets.
Teacher: She/He teaches children new things.
Vet: She/He is a doctor for animals.
Housewife: She/He looks after the house.
House cleaner: She/He cleans other people’s houses.
Postwoman/Postman: She/He delivers letters.
Taxi driver: She/He drives us places.
Bus driver: She/He drives us places.
Truck driver: She/He drives things to places.
Pilot: She/He flies planes.
Football player: She/He plays football.
Singer: She/He sings.
Cumputer programmer: She/He works with computers.
Builder: She/He builds houses.
Carpenter: She/He makes wood furniture.
Astronaut: She/He flies to space.
Miner: She/He searches minerals.
Fisherman: She/He catches fish.
Clown: She/He makes children laugh.
Thursday, April 11, 2013
Monday, April 8, 2013
Cities have three main parts:
The historic centre. This is usually the oldest part. The streets are narrow and the buildings are not very tall. Historic monuments, such as the cathedral and the main square, are usually in the historic centre.
The modern district. This area often surrounds the city centre. The streets are wider. There are often tall buildings here.
The suburbs. These are residential areas away from the centre. There are shopping centres, factories and industrial estates in many suburbs.
Most people in Europe live in cities.
City life has advantages and disadvantages.
- Advantages. There are many services, such as shops, hospitals, schools, universities, museums, theatres and sport centres.
- Disadvantages: There is a lot of noise and polution from traffic. People waste a lot of time travelling from their homes to work.
Cities have a large population.
Some characteristics of cities are:
- Many of th ebuildings are tall. Some buildings have more than five floors.
- Many people live in cities. Most people work in industry or services, in offices, shops, banks, hospitals or factories.
- People travel greater distances than in villages, so there are many cars and buses.
Sunday, April 7, 2013
Coastal villages can be on high land or on coastal plains.
These villages are popular with tourists who enjoy the beaches.
For this reason, many villagers work in hotels and restaurants.
Some villagers are fishermen.
They go out to the sea in their boats every day.
Villages on plains are usually bigger than mountain villages.
The streets and roads are straight.
Many villages have housing estates.
These are groups of houses that look very similar.
Plains are perfect places for farms because the land is flat and fertile.
That is why many villagers work on farms.
Mountain villages are on mountain sides or in valleys.
The houses have thick walls to keep out the cold.
The roofs are sloped so the snow falls off.
The streets are steep and narrow.
Many villagers work on farms or take care of the forests.
Villages have a small population.
The main characteristics of a village are:
- The houses are low, usually with only one or two floors. One family lives in each house.
- The streets are short and usually lead to the main square in the centre of the village. The most important buildings, the town hall or the church, are in the main square.
- Most people know each other because the population is small.
People live in cities, towns or villages.
Your neighbourhood is the part of the city or town where you live.
Cities often have tall buildings and long, wide streets.
Many people live there.
Villages have low buildings and short, narrow streets.
Not many people live there.