Tuesday, October 30, 2012

NUTRITION IN PLANTS


Plants do not eat other living things.
They produce their own food through photosynthesis.
Plants need four things to carry out photosynthesis:

  • Water and mineral salts are taken from the soil through the roots.
  • Carbon dioxide, a gas, is taken from the air through the leaves.
  • Energy from sunlight is taken through the leaves by a green substance called chlorophyll.

NUTRITION IN ANIMALS


All animals need to eat in order to carry out nutrition.
All animals eat other living things.
There are three types of animals:

  • Carnivores eat other animals.
  • Herbivores est plants.
  • Omnivores eat other animals and plants.

ALL LIVING THINGS NEED NUTRITION


You need food for the process of nutrition.
Nutrition provides you with:

  • Energy to run, play and study.
  • Nutrients to grow and be healthy.
During the process of nutrition, living things take in food and absorb the essential nutrients for life.

LIFE PROCESSES


All living things carry out life processes.
Non-living things do not carry out life processes.
Three of the life processes are:

  • Nutrition.
  • Sensitivity.
  • Reproduction.

Monday, October 29, 2012

BIRDS

Here you have some of the birds we have seen this morning:




LIVING THINGS


LIVING THINGS AND NON-LIVING THINGS
In nature, there are living and non-living things. Human beings, trees, birds and insects are living things. Rocks and air are non-living things.




ANIMALS AND PLANTS
Animals and plants are living things. Animals eat food. Plants produce their own food. To do this they need water, sunlight and nutrients from the soil.


Monday, October 22, 2012

Sunday, October 21, 2012

TOUCH


The sense of touch allows you to identify characteristics of the objects around you. Your skin is the sense organ of touch.
The skin has sensitive touch receptors that allow you to distinguish different sensations: temperature, pressure and pain. Touch receptors send this information to the brain.
Some parts of your skin are more sensitive to touch than others.


TASTE


The sense of taste allows you to capture different flavours of food. The tongue is the main sense organ of taste.
The tongue is covered with small bumps called taste buds.
These taste buds distinguish five basic flavours: sweet, salty, sour, bitter and umami.




SMELL


The sense organ of smell is inside your nose. To capture a smell, an odour must travel through the air, enter the nose through the nostrils and reach the nasal lining inside the nasal cavity.
The nasal cavity has special smell receptors that capture the odour.
The smell receptors send signals to the olfactory bulb in the brain. The brain interprets the information.


Friday, October 19, 2012

THE EAR AND THE BRAIN


The cochlea sends the sound through the auditory nerve to the brain.
The brain interprets the information.


THE EARS


You have two ears, one on each side of your head. This is how you know which direction a sound is coming from. The ears capture sound vibrations and send them to the brain.


The ear has three parts: the outer ear, the middle ear and the inner ear.
The outer ear is external.

  • It captures sound through the pinna.
  • The sound travels through the ear canal to the middle ear.
The middle ear is internal.
  • The eardrum and three small bones.
  • When sound reaches the eardrum, it vibrates.
  • The small bones make the sound louder.
The inner ear is inside your head.
  • It consists of the cochlea.
  • The cochlea receives the sound vibrations.


THE SENSE OF HEARING


When something makes a noise, it vibrates and sends vibrations, or sound waves, through the air. Hearing is the sense you use to capture sounds. Ears are the sense organs of hearing.


Tuesday, October 16, 2012

THE EYES AND THE BRAIN


The retina captures light from an object. This information is sent to the brain through the optic nerve.
The brain interprets the information.


  1. The girl's eyes see a flying object.
  2. This information is sent to her brain through the optic nerve.
  3. Her brain knows that it is a bird and not a butterfly.






SKETCH OF THE INNER EYE

Here you have the sketch of the inner eye. You have to do something like this in your notebook.

Monday, October 15, 2012

THE EYES


The eyes are the sense organs of sight. Their function is to capture light.
Eyes are very delicate and need protection.

  • Eyelids protect the eyes by opening and closing.
  • Eyebrows and eyelashes protect the eyes from dirt.
  • Tears keep the eyes moist.
There are five main parts: the cornea, the pupil, the iris, the lens and the retina.
  • First, light passes through the cornea. The cornea is transparent.
  • Then, light passes through the pupil. The pupil is the hole in the centre of the iris.
  • The level of light is controlled by the iris. The iris is a coloured ring.
  • The lens helps the eye to focus.
  • Finally, the retina captures the light.



THE SENSE OF SIGHT


The sense of sight is used to distinguish shapes, colours, size and distance.
To see:

  • There must be light.
  • The light must reach your eyes.

Sunday, October 14, 2012

OLD AGE


Old people have wrinkles. Their bones become fragile and their muscles grow weaker. Their hair goes grey.


ADULTHOOD


Your body is fully developed and doesn't change. Many adults have children. They look after their home and go out to work.


ADOLESCENCE


Your body prepares to become an adult. Boys grow facial and body hair and their voices get deeper. Girls develop breasts.


CHILDHOOD


Childhood is the first stage of life. Newborn babies drink milk from their mother.
Later, they take solid food. Their milk teeth appear. They learn to walk and talk.
From 3 to 9 years, children grow. Milk teeth start to fall out and permanent teeth grow at about 6 years old.


HOW DO YOU BEND YOUR ARM?


Bones and muscles work together to move your body.
The elbow is the joint between the humerus and the bones in the forearm.
There are two muscles in the upper arm: the biceps in the front and the triceps in the back.
These muscles help us to control the movement of our arms.


MUSCLES


Muscles are organs which are attached to the bones and help them to move.
Muscles are flexible: they can contract and extend, then contract again without breaking.


Monday, October 1, 2012

JOINTS


Bones join together at joints.

Two types of joints:

  • Fixed joints: the bones do not move (the skull).
  • Moveable joints: the bones move in one direction (the knee or the elbow). These joints are held together by ligaments.


video

BONES


Bones are hard, strong, rigid organs. They form the skeleton.The skeleton supports the body.

Bones are living things. They grow. Broken bones can heal.



Bones can have different shapes: long, short or flat.


INSIDE YOUR BODY


Your body is covered with skin. Your muscles are underneath the skin, and your bones are underneath your muscles.

Inside your body are the organs: the brain, the heart, the lungs, the stomach...
Organs make your body function.

You can click here and practice:

PARTS OF THE BODY


The head, the trunk and the limbs.
The head: the forehead, the face and the chin.
The trunk: the thorax and the abdomen.
The limbs: four limbs.
    The upper limbs are the arms: the forearms and the hands.
    The lower limbs are the legs: the thighs, and the feet.

















And click here to play and practice:

HOW TO USE YOUR SCIENCE NOTEBOOK

Here you have some rules on how to use your science notebook:
Try to keep it clean and tidy.
Always use your best handwriting.
When you start at the top of the page, or from when you last finished writing, write the date (remember to use capital letters) and underline it in green.
When writing in your book you must leave 2 white line spaces between each sentence.
When you write a question, underline it in red and the write the answer on the next line.